Walter E. Fernald
No. 4 I
AN EXAMINER'S MANUAL
THE MYERS MENTAL MEASURE
CAROLINE E. MYERS
GARRY C. MYERS, Ph.D.
HEAD OF DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY,
CLEVELAND SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
NEWSON & COMPANY
NEW YORK and CHICAGO
By CAROLINE E. MEYERS
By NEWSON & COMPANY
All rights reserved
This Manual attempts to give the aims, purposes, and appli-
cation of intelligence tests in general and of The Myers Mental
Measure in particular. It is written with the hope that it will
be of aid to all who use intelligence ratings regardless of what
test is used.
The authors take a conservative attitude toward the functions
of intelligence tests, pointing out some of their shortcomings
but at the same time attempting to show how the ratings of
intelligence tests can be used to bring the best results.
The Myers Mental Measure is offered to supply a very practical
need of a group intelligence test:
1. That is a single continuous scale of a few pages applicable
to all ages.
2. That correlates pretty highly with Stanford-Binet.
3. That is independent of school experience; that finds the
bright child who would not ordinarily be found in terms of his
4. That any teacher can learn to give accurately and that any
clerk can learn to score with precision.
5. That is brief and simple, yet scientific.
In this Manual are presented graphs and tables which the
authors offer in evidence of their belief that The Myers Mental
Measure meets with the above-named criteria.
General and specific directions for giving and scoring the tests
are presented together with norms based on over 15,000 cases
AN EXAMINER'S MANUAL
THE MYERS MENTAL MEASURE: ITS MEANING
Aims of Intelligence Tests
Intelligence tests aim:
1. To aid the Administrator.
(a) To classify his children on the basis of native capac-
ities; especially to pick out children of marked ability.
(b) To measure the efficiency of his school organization
and his teachers by checking up the school product with the
abilities of the children concerned.
2. To aid the teacher.
(a) To know what to expect of herself and her individual
(b) To be more keenly aware of individual difference.
3. To aid the employer.
(a) To make a hasty classification of his employees,
especially to find early his foremen and other leaders.
How Intelligence Tests Differ from Educational
Educational tests and measurements have been used for
a number of years in the public schools with great success.
Along come the intelligence tests to supplement educational
measurements making them more effectual. Wherein do
the two types of tests differ? Educational measurements
are a kind of yardstick designed to evaluate the quantity
and quality of school performance. By them the school
man can determine how well his children do, in arithmetic or
writing or reading, say, as compared with the average per-
formance of several thousand children of different school
systems in that school subject. Moreover, by these educa-
tional measurements in one or more school subjects the
performance by one group of children, or by one school
system can be compared with the performance by other
groups or systems.
While actual school performance is thus measured con-
siderable information about the intelligence, or capacity to
learn, is also obtained. In other words, how well a child
can read, or write, or spell, or do arithmetical sums, tells
something about that child's intelligence. To get on well
in school presupposes a certain degree of native capacity
to learn. However, common observation suggests that not
all who get on well in school do so because of marked native
ability. With a reasonable amount of it some children
achieve much because of their excessive zeal and industry.
Likewise, often those who have a great capacity to learn
get on poorly. Educational measurements tell only how the
child has got along in school. To determine how he ought
to get along in school is the aim of the intelligence tests.
They aim to tell what the child should do and with what
relative speed he ought to learn; while educational measure-
ments tell with what speed he has learned. Intelligence
tests are prospective; educational measurements retro-
spective. Of the two therefore the former are the more
fundamental. By them the latter are rendered more
effectual and certainly more scientific. Unless the relative
learning ability of two or more groups of children is known,
their degree of performance can not be accurately adjudged.
It is not what a given child or group of children actually
do in school work that is significant, but what they do in
relation to their native abilities. The intelligence test
measures relative native abilities. It is obviously desir-
able, therefore, that an intelligence test should be inde-
pendent of school experience.
Kinds of Intelligence Tests
Before the late War there were in use several intelligence
tests, chief of which were the original Simon Binet, Ter-
man's Stanford Revision of Binet, Goddard's Revision of
Binet, and Yerkes-Bridges' Point Scale. Such tests were
pretty highly standardized and have been considered to
measure intelligence with a high degree of accuracy. But
they are all designed to test only one person at a time,
requiring from twenty minutes to an hour for each examina-
tion. When the army testing began it was readily seen
that although the available individual tests could not
easily be improved upon in accuracy, to use these measures
was far too slow a procedure. Tests were needed to
examine several hundred at a time. To supply this need
there were developed the Army group tests, Alpha for those
who could read and write English, Beta for those who were
illiterate in English. Out of the Army testing have grown
a number of group intelligence tests adapted to school
children. Most have been an imitation of Alpha with
emphasis on language exercises, applying, consequently,
only to the upper grades and high schools. A few authors,
imitating Beta, have developed tests for the first few grades
only. The authors of The Myers Mental Measure have
combined many of the best principles of Alpha and Beta and
Stanford-Binet into a single continuous scale consisting
wholly of pictures and applicable to all ages and degrees
of school experience. Each section of this test sets tasks
easy and simple enough for the kindergarten child and at
the same time other tasks hard enough for the university
student. In this respect this test is unique.
Desirability of Complete Intelligence Surveys of
Although the Army tests were applied to whole com-
panies, whole regiments, and whole divisions at a time, most
testing in schools to date has been spasmodic, on a few
classes or a few grades here and there, in a given school
system. The first complete intelligence survey of a city
school system of any size was made by Supt. S. H. Layton
of Altoona, Pa. In this survey The Myers Mental Measure
was used because it could be given to all ages and grades
of children including high school seniors.*
Since that time other cities have been surveyed in a like
manner. All the children of a city, however large, can thus
be tested in a single day or half day, by a single continuous
*See Annual Report of the Altoona Public Schools, June, 1920.
By such a survey the superintendent can get a con-
centrated record of all children of a given grade. He can
compare the intelligence ratings by the children of the
various classes within this grade. Moreover, he can com-
pare the ratings by each grade with those by every other
grade, since the same scale is used throughout. When he
follows up by his educational measurements he can deter-
mine how a given grade overlaps in amount of school per-
formance, the grades above it and below it. With like
overlapping of the grades in the intelligence ratings he can
make comparisons that will be very significant.
Whole counties of rural schools, just as whole cities, have
been surveyed by this single group intelligence scale.
Spasmodic testing, although not ideal, is worth while.
Some of the best information available on the value of
intelligence tests has come through such procedure.
Indeed, any supervisor, principal, or teacher can profit
by the use of an intelligence test, however limited, if the
ratings therefrom are used to advantage.
Getting Ready for an Intelligence Survey
If a given school system is to have an intelligence survey,
detailed preparation should be made quietly after the fash-
ion of getting ready to a go over the top." Let the super-
intendent, or an expert designated by him, coach the prin-
cipals and those of the teachers selected to give the tests.
Let every tester be imbued with the idea that the directions
are to be followed to the letter and that in order "to put
over" these directions each tester must be very familiar
with them and with the process of precise reading of "sec-
onds" on a watch. Accurate timing of each test is of the
Getting the Children Ready
At the appointed hour for beginning the test in each build-
ing, those testing should be careful to make sure that the
children are comfortable and that they assume a cooper-
ative attitude. To the lower grade children this test may
be referred to by the tester as a game to be played by set
rules. To those of the upper grades, and especially of the
high school, this test should be referred to seriously as a test,
ratings by which to be matters of official records. But in
no case should there be the slightest suggestion that will
excite or disturb those taking the test.
In case the teacher tests her own children the greatest
danger is that the children will not take the test with
sufficient seriousness and that the teacher will still main-
tain her teaching attitude toward the children. Therefore,
in spite of her desire to follow the instructions of the manual
verbatim she will, unless very careful, be prone to vary
toward giving undue advantage to her children. Every
teacher who tests needs to be cautioned strongly on this
The sum of the points made on The Myers Mental Measure
is known as the raw score. For the purpose of comparing
grades and schools by this test this raw score is all that is
necessary. But for all other purposes this raw score should
be considered in relation to chronological age. Anyone
can readily see that a child of nine years who makes a
raw score of 40 points is much superior to the nine year old
child who makes a score of only 15 points. Hence the best
measure is an intelligence ratio computed by dividing the
raw score by the age-in-months. For example, Willie
Winger has a raw score of 23. He is 109 months of age.
Willie Winger has an intelligence ratio of .21. It is obvious
that if a child is old for his grade he may make a relatively
high raw score. If however, that score is divided by
the chronological age-in-months of that child his score
(intelligence ratio) will be greatly reduced in value. Prob-
ably that child will actually rank relatively low in his class
just as he probably should, since most over-aged children
of a given grade are in that grade because of their relatively
inferior intelligence. The Intelligence Ratio is very simple.
Anyone can compute it. Anyone can understand it. It
admits of no confusion. It is a very reliable measure. It
can be derived from any group intelligence test.
Intelligence Ratio Should not be Confused with the
Intelligence Quotient of an Individual Test
Unfortunately in the first edition of this Manual the
Intelligence Ratio was called Intelligence Quotient. Of
course this term was not incorrect but it was slightly ambigu-
ous to some. However, it was clearly explained there to mean
" Raw Score divided by chronological age-in-months."
Owing to the danger of its being confused with the more
traditional use of the Intelligence Quotient (I. Q.) the more
appropriate name, Intelligence Ratio, has been adopted.
Meaning of I. Q.
The term I. Q. has been used very carelessly , often in
almost complete ignorance by its user, especially the lay-
Terman first used it in his Stanford Revision of the Binet
Test. For each part of that test correctly passed by the
child a certain number of months are credited. The total
of all these points scored by the child equals that child's
mental age-in-months. The child's mental age-in-months
(raw score) divided by his chronological age-in-months gives
the intelligence quotient (I. Q.) of that child. Let it be
remembered, however, that each credit the child earns in
the Stanford-Binet is in terms of months, and that no group
test gives a score in such terms.
Of course, if the total number of points earned in Stan-
ford-Binet is divided by twelve the mental age of that child
will be in terms of years. Then if this mental age-in-years
is divided by that child's chronological age-in-years the
same I. Q. may be derived as if the divisor and dividend had
each been in months.
Analogous to such a procedure an I. Q. as generally used
in relation to group tests may be derived from The Myers
Mental Measure. To illustrate, a given child making 35
points is, on the average, 10 years old. We may say that
he has a mental age of 10 years. See table, page 55. Sup-
pose this child were 9 years old. Then his intelligence
quotient is 10 divided by 9 or 1.11. This procedure is in
keeping with common usage with group tests but it is
obviously not very accurate. Moreover, the term, intel-
ligence quotient, suggests an identity with an I. Q. of a
standardized individual test, and consequently suggests
clinical attributes. Therefore the authors of The Myers Men-
tal Measure do not recommend its use. They prefer the
intelligence ratio — raw score divided by chronological
age-in-months, as the more accurate and as unambiguous.
But how can scores by different tests be compared except
by intelligence quotients? Save in terms of ranking they
never can be compared with accuracy, intelligence quotient
or no intelligence quotient. Ratings by any two intelli-
gence scales are not wholly commensurate. Why not
admit it? The ratings by any scale have a meaning in
respect to that scale and nothing more. This fact makes
all the more desirable a single scale that is continuous,
that measures the first grade child and at the same time the
university student,— in short, that measures intelligence
for all ages. If, on the other hand, there is a scale for the
first two or three grades, another for the next few grades,
and so on, how can the ratings of the lower scale ever be
compared with the ratings by the higher scale? Suppose,
for example, a given scale that applies only to the first three
grades is used, and a second scale that applies only to the
next five grades, how can the ratings by the second and third
grades be compared with the ratings by the fourth and fifth
grades? They never can be compared.
Compilation of Data
Although every teacher will want the individual scores of
her pupils and will want constantly to check up with the
school progress of each pupil in relation to this intelligence
rating, the administrator and supervisor will be interested
most in the ratings by the groups. How shall he proceed
to study them?
The first step is to condense the data into larger units.
With The Myers Mental Measure it has been convenient
to group the individual ratings as follows :
Under "Raw Score " one reads, for example, "One case
scored between 1 and 5 points; 4 cases scored between 6 and
10 points, etc." A mere glance at this table tells the reader
a great deal about the group. In like manner the intelli-
gence ratio can be read.
One can represent graphically the raw score thus:
The spaces on the base line between the points are the
values or scores. Each block represents a case. From the
graph one also reads: "One case scored between 1 and 5,
4 cases scored between 6 and 10, etc."
This picture is called the " distribution graph." If,
instead of the angular boundaries, the edges were smoothed
the graph would look like this :
Whether in blocks or in curves the trend taken is that of
the Normal Probability Curve of Distribution.
Meaning of the Normal Probability Curve of
The table above from which this graph is derived is a
fictitious one. However, if one were to measure 10,000
individuals of homogeneous groups, i.e., groups whose
common element measured is an indispensable element, one
would find a distribution similar to that indicated above
but a better one.
Suppose one were to measure the head circumference of
10,000 male Americans of Irish descent, 21 years of age.
One would find a large number of heads of about aver-
age circumference. For each decreasing unit in circum-
ference the number would grow smaller as well as for each
increasing unit in circumference. Let these measures from
the smallest head among the 10,000 to the largest head
among them range in measures represented by a, b, c, d, e,
f, g, h, i. Representing these measures graphically one
would get the following distribution :
B C D E P G H
Whatever one were to measure in the biological world
would distribute after this fashion, if the number of cases
were great enough and if they represented random sampling
of sufficiently homogeneous groups.
Let it be remembered that a smooth curve of distribution,
or one closely after the normal probability curve, can not
always be expected for small groups, since relatively small
numbers have a poor chance to be wholly representative.
If an intelligence test distributes its scores within each
age and grade after the manner of the normal distribution,
that test would seem to be a highly reliable one. Let us
see what The Myers Mental Measure does.
On pages 18 and 19 are graphically presented distribu-
tions, by raw scores and by intelligence ratios, for each age
and grade of the 3,092 elementary school children of the
East Cleveland schools, by this test. On page 21 are
graphic distributions of the raw scores by 810 high school
seniors (and of the intelligence ratios by 182 of these), of
the raw score by 128 entrants to a city normal school, by
260 elementary school teachers, by 493 college students, and
by 170 boys of a school for "Incorrigibles." The intelligence
ratios are in hundredths while the raw scores are in integral
Median Scores by East Cleveland
By Grades Regardless of Chronological age
Number cases 446 380 380 393 382 371 388 352
Grades I II III IV V VI VII VIII
Raw score 14 24 30 38 41 44 48 54
Intelligence ratio 17 .25 .29 .31 .31 .31 .30 .32
By Chronological Ages Regardless of Grades
Number cases.. . 116 384 375 374 347 392 324 371 269 110 27
Ages 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Raw score 12 16 26 32 37 41 46 49 51 47 47
Intelligence ratio .14 .19 .27 .29 .31 .31 .32 .31 .30 .27 .24
By comparing these medians with the medians of the
larger groups (see pages 54 and 55), which are offered as the
Norms for this test, it will be seen that the East Cleveland
scores range relatively high, as would be expected, this
being a suburban city.
For the raw scores by grades the medians are indicated
graphically illustrating an added means of showing inter-
relation of all groups within an entire school system.
Distribution Graphs of 3,092 Elementary School Children of East
Cleveland by Ages. (The ages are represented by the numerals
between the pairs of graphs.)
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Distribution Graphs Continued of 3,092 Elementary School Chil-
dren of East Cleveland by Ages. (The ages are represented by
the numerals between the pairs of graphs.)
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<jr O V O yi O V> <=• U< O <-" O
Score ,3 «8S
Distribution Graphs by Raw Score of 810 High School Seniors a*
Graduation, 128 Normal School Entrants 260 Elementary
School Teachers, 493 College Students, and 170 Bad Boys
also by Intelligence Ratio of 182 High School Seniors.
Bad Boys School
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~ 21 *» *° W W —
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- N N o> 0< A ^ U
These graphs show conclusively that the ratings by The
Myers Mental Measure distribute in very close accord-
ance with the probability curve of normal distribution re-
gardless of the age and school experience of the groups
studied ; what some experts have contended could not be
Space will not admit of the tables of distribution from
which these graphs are constructed but the medians are
presented on page 20.
Since the groups represented by the graphs do not have
the same number of cases all the numerical distributions
were reduced to a percentage basis. To illustrate, the raw
scores for Grade II, East Cleveland are thus reduced:
Score 1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25
Number of cases 1 5 21 39 77 74
Percentage of cases 26 1.31 5.52 10.27 20.26 19.47
Score 26-30 31-35 36-40 41^5 46-50 51-55
Number of cases 72 50 25 8 6 2
Percentage of cases 18.95 13.16 6.58 2.11 1.58 .52
Such a reduction on the scale of 100 per cent is always
desirable when such groups are compared by distribution
All the tables of distribution from which the graphs are
built are incorporated in the larger distribution tables below,
which, in turn, incorporate also like tables from the school
children of Cleveland, Altoona, Painesville, O., Cleveland
Heights, O., Western Reserve University, Ohio Wesleyan
University, Hiram College, Lake Erie College, and Wooster
College. For the college group the cases are pretty
evenly distributed among the four years.
The medians derived from these total distribution tables
are offered as tentative norms for The Myers Mental
Measure. They appear at the foot of the tables and again,
in a more condensed form, on pages 54 and 55.
Distribution of Raw Scores by Grades
III IV V
17 244 99 J
11 329 195 59 24
7 338 233 155 56 26 2
L3 294 253 137 57 17
3 137 246 332 193 134 59
1 74 168 297 248 243 102
26 106 234 291 325 187
21 55 169 276 317 255
L9 110 194 277 240
L4 55 111 220 217
7 24 47 144 143
L2 27 89 123
2 10 55 55
Total cases 45 1,410 1,447 1,721 1,630 1,922 1,495 1,610 1,550
Median 6.2 12.6 19.2 26.8 33.6 38.6 43.6 47.8 52.4
of Raw Scores by
Distribution of Raw Scores by Ages
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
25 11 4
62 26 14
101 54 31
165 110 53
215 149 95
236 148 135
209 200 193
176 219 216
126 133 189
63 105 150
Total cases 516 1191 1237 1440 1304 1318 1169 1204 928 445 88 19
Median 9.7 16.1 23.2 29.2 34.8 39.1 43.9 47.6 49.5 48.7 50.0 47.2
Distribution of Intelligence Ratio by Grades
Total cases 1410 1447 1496 1630 1696 1311 1177 1478 182
Median .145 .195 .244 .275 .285 .299 .299 .314 .285
Distribution of Intelligence Ratios by Ages
Total cases 516 1191 1237 1440 1304 1318 1169 1204 928 445 88 19
Median .121 .181 .235 .258 .280 .283 .297 .301 .294 .276 .260 .241
The reason for plotting the graphs from the East Cleve-
land groups only instead of from the combined ratings of
the several cities is because that city, practically without
a foreign population, represents the most homogeneous large
group of any of the groups studied. From mere inspection
it will be seen that the ratings of the East Cleveland children
approach more closely the normal probability curve of dis-
tribution in the first one or two grades and school years
than do the ratings by the several cities combined. How-
ever, for all other grades and ages the combined ratings not
only are quite as nearly normal as the East Cleveland groups
but, in consequence of their much larger numbers they are
Since the skewness in the first grades and ages increased
with the number of foreign children in the several cities
studied it is very highly probable that this skewness for
the first grades and ages of the combined groups is due
to the presence there of the relatively large number of
children who did not understand English. Although this
test "gets across" very well with non-English speaking
people who understand spoken English, neither this very
simple picture test nor any other available group test does
justice to those not understanding English. Because of
this fact the authors of The Myers Mental Measure are now
developing a test which presumes to be a measure equally
good with non-English speaking persons not understanding
English and all other types of persons. It will be especially
suited to members of Americanization classes.
Group Comparison by Medians
Ordinarily groups are compared in terms of averages. A
measure much simpler than the average, a measure which
to most means about the same as the average, and which,
when the distribution is approximately normal, is prac-
tically the same as the average, is the median. The median
score is that score above which fall as many cases as the
number of cases that fall below it.
Suppose for example, nine children scored as follows:
19, 17, 20, 23, 25, 24, 22, 21, 18. Arranged in order their
scores would be 25, 24, 23, 22, 21, 20, 19, 18, 17. Here the
middle case is 21, or the score of that individual above whose
score as many cases fall as the number who fall below it.
When one has a large group the procedure is, in general,
the same, though of course not quite so simple.
Now let us compute the median from the distribution:
Raw Score Number cases
Total number cases 22
The median will be the value reached by counting down
11 cases or up 11 cases. It will be seen that the median
raw score will fall somewhere in the step 11-15. Counting
down, 7 cases are used up above this step 11-15. Four
more cases are needed out of the 8 cases. Therefore -f
of 1 step will be added to the value used up. One step equals
5 points. Then f of 5 equals 2.5. Since values of scores
counting down increase, the median is 11 plus 2.5 or 13.5.
To verify this median let us count upward. Again 7
cases are used up and 4 are needed out of the group of 8
cases. Therefore -f of 1 step equals -f of 5 or 2.5. Since
the scores decrease in value counting downward the median
is 16-2.5 or 13.5.
By extending the lines representing the median of each
group on the distribution graphs as with graphs on page 20,
one can easily see how much each group reaches or exceeds
or falls below in value the median of every other group. In
that way one can get a bird's-eye view of the ratings of a
whole school svstem.
One can also compare the values where the highest number
of cases fall. This measure is called the mode. For example
for grade one (East Cleveland) the mode by raw score is
at 11-15 ; for grade two, at 16-20. It will be seen that the
mode approximates the median. If the distribution were
wholly normal these two measures would be identical.
What are Norms?
A test does not mean much until it is standardized i.e.,
until ratings by it have been compiled from a relatively
large number of representative cases from each age and
grade for which that test is designed. The average or the
median score by a standardized test for each age and grade
is called the norm or standard for that age and grade by
that test. By virtue of its norms or standards is a test said
to be standardized. The norms for The Myers Mental
Measure are in terms of the median (see pages 54 and 55.)
Although the distribution graphs are based on the 3,092
cases of East Cleveland the norms, and the tables from
which these norms were derived, are based on 15,241 cases.
From these norms one reads for example that the median
first grade child makes a raw score of 13 points, and intelli-
gence ratio of .15; the median fifth grade child makes a raw
score of 39 points and an intelligence ratio of .29; the
median child of 8 years makes a raw score of 23 points, and
an intelligence ratio of .24; the median child of 12 years
makes a raw score of 44 points, and an intelligence ratio of
Only 36 out of the 15,241 cases, including kindergarten
and first grade children, failed to score. This means that
this same scale of four pages which is so difficult that no
adult has ever made a perfect score on it, is at the same time,
so easy that the first grade child almost never wholly fails
to score. Only 5 of the 45 kindergarten children failed to
score. However, the kindergarten children were tested
in groups of from 2 to 6, as they should be with this or any
other group intelligence test.
Correlation with Stanford-Binet
The Myers Mental Measure* was checked up with Stan-
ford-Binet on about 300 school children pretty equally
distributed throughout the grades, with a correlation of
about .80 for each grade. For the respective grades the
correlations were from first to eighth inclusive; .81, .83,
.86, .85, .78, .78, .89, .68. With the first four tests of Alpha
given to 39 convalescent soldiers this test correlated .91.
These high correlations for the respective school grades
are all the more significant since they are obviously on
relatively homogeneous groups. Had the correlation been
computed regardless of grade it would have been much
Who Shall Interpret the Ratings of an Intelligence
By following the instructions of the test literally almost
anyone can give a group test with precision, but inter-
pretation of the ratings require considerable skill. The
*A Group Intelligence Test. Caroline E\ Myers and Garry C. Myers.
School and Society, Sept. 20, 1919. Pp. 355-360.
f "A Grave Fallacy in Intelligence Test Correlations." Garry C. Myers.
School and Society. May, 1920, pp. 528-529.
superintendent or his clinical psychologist or expert in
measurements are usually the competent interpreters.
Any teacher, however, can learn a great deal about her
children, of value in her teaching, by studying their com-
parative ratings in the test, especially when these ratings
are reduced to intelligence ratios. Even where there is an
expert to interpret the data, the teacher should have in her
class record-book, opposite the name of each child, his
intelligence ratio and she should have in her book the
norm for that grade. She should be urged to check up con-
stantly each child's school progress with his rating. How-
ever, the teacher should be cautioned against attempting
individual diagnoses on the basis of such ratings. Each
child's rating she should consider merely as a probable
measure of his ability and in no wise as a final perfect
measure. In case a child's school progress does not reason-
ably correspond with his intelligence rating he should be
referred to the clinician. Furthermore, neither the clinician
nor the teacher should divulge to the children their intelli-
Pitfalls in Interpretation
Too many teachers, and even administrators, look upon
intelligence tests as a kind of panacea for all ills, as an
infallible measure. There is a tendency to interpret a score
by any child as a perfect measure of that child's intelli-
gence. Indeed there is a wide tendency for teachers and
others to refer to the intelligence of this child or that.
For example, "This child has an intelligence of 43 or of
72" is a type of a current bad usage. Instead one should
get into the habit of saying, "This Child's raw score by The
Myers Mental Measure/' for example, "is thus and so."
Using the Ratings
In a large number of cases intelligence ratings have been
made and left to go unused. Although some schoolmen
may find such ratings a kind of fashionable ornament, these
ratings are justified only when used.
Selecting Ability Groups within Grades
In general, these ratings should be used as follows:
Arrange the names of the children of a given grade of a
given building in order of the scores of those children.
For The Myers Mental Measure the scores to be used in such
grouping are the intelligence ratios. Having determined the
number of classes and their respective sizes count off, begin-
ning with those children rating highest, the number of
children desired for the brightest class. Then count off the
number desired for the next brightest class, and so on for that
After a few weeks those children advancing in their school
work more slowly or more rapidly than their section would
warrant should be examined by the clinical psychologist
and reclassified by her accordingly. In the absence of a
clinician the teacher's careful records will determine the
position of the few probable misfits. In all events the
teacher's judgment in reference to such "variable" children
should be taken into account.
Regkouping at Promotion
It would seem that at promotion time the children of
each ability section of a given grade would naturally be
promoted to the corresponding ability section of the higher
grade. In practice it is not so simple, since the number
promoted from all sections within a given grade or failing
promotion in the corresponding sections of the next higher
grade is not always the same, there will have to be a reshifting
from group to group at promotion.
Here is the scheme for promotion of ability groups worked
out with illiterate soldiers by the authors of The Myers
Mental Measure for the War Department, which scheme
has been pretty closely adhered to in practically all the
Army Americanization Schools.*
In promotion, pool the names of all who are to be promoted
to a given grade with those who are to remain in that grade.
Opposite each name place the original intelligence rating
(the intelligence ratio for children below the high school)
of that pupil. Then rank these names in order of their
respective rating, and beginning with the highest, count off
the number desired for each successive ability group as
in the original classification. By this scheme the desired
size of each class can be determined exactly and the ability
grouping in accordance with intelligence ratings will be as
nearly perfect as possible.
This plan does not necessitate retesting. Certainly it
would not be desirable nor economical to test children
* "Prophecy of Learning Progress by Beta." Garry C. Myers., Jr. Ed.
Psychol. April, 1921, pp. 228-231.
each school term. However, it may be very desirable to
test them every few years.
Acceleration of Bright Children not Most Desirable
What shall be done with the brighter children? There is
considerable precedent for accelerating them, letting them
do two or three terms of work in one. More often individu-
als have been allowed to skip grade largely on the strength
of their intelligence rating.
The authors of The Myers Mental Measure deplore this
attempted solution of the problem of the bright child
because it tends to get through the school earliest the very
children who ought to profit most by staying in school
longest, and who, in turn, ought to get most in school for
social service. In other words, acceleration of the bright
child, in the long run, is a loss to the community.
Enrichment of the Curriculum within Each Grade
According to Ability Groups
Instead of speeding up the progress through the grades
there should be a broadening and enriching of the course
of study within each grade, for the brighter children. Let
that be specified in black and white just as the regular tradi-
tional curriculum for Grade II, for example, is specified.
Then for the next higher-ability group let there be just as
specific a course — the minimum requirement plus certain
very definite work for this second section. For the next
higher section let there be the requirement of this second
ability group plus a specific addition. Let each addition
be in terms of breadth and not a reaching over into fields
of a higher grade; and by all means let the requirement for
each ability group be put down specifically and let these
requirements be strictly adhered to.
This will mean that in the long run the grades earned by
the best section will not be higher than the grades earned
in a lower section. It will mean that a child in the best
section may fail promotion as well as the child of a lower
section, or he may be shifted to a lower section, if he fails
to measure up to the high standard of his section.
Scheme Presupposes Ungraded Classes for Lowest
Ordinarily the lowest rating section will,, on the whole, be
more inferior to the next ability group than this group will
be inferior to its next higher group, because of the extremely
low cases who hardly adapt themselves at all to school
procedure. Consequently there is needed in each building
of ten or more rooms an ungraded class to include these
deviates of low-grade intelligence in order to free the lowest
sections of each grade from their burden, and in order to
make these children happier by giving them the kind of
activity they can best profit by.
Right Use of Intelligence Ratings Will Mean Social
This will mean social responsibility in terms of capacity.
The child who falls in the upper groups will readily get the
idea that by virtue of his being in that group much more is
expected of him, that after all society not only will expect
more of him but will demand more. His only distinction
for being in the best section will be the opportunity for more
work. By such procedure the intelligence test becomes a
tool for wider and more effective democracy.
Wrong Use of Intelligence Tests are a Social Danger
Unfortunately very often when there has been division of
grades into ability groups all the different ability sections
have had practically the same work to do. This means
that the teacher and the children of the better sections
could attain a high grade of work with but small effort.
It means, too, that those of the better sections learn to look
upon themselves as superior individuals with consequent
freedom from certain drudgery of their unfortunate neigh-
bors of the lower ability group, and with the opportunity
to exaggerate their awareness of superiority by earning
higher grades. Snobbery, on the part of the children of the
better group, and jealousy, and all sorts of unrest, on the
part of the parents of the children in the lower groups is the
inexorable consequence. The children of the lower groups
are stamped as all the more inferior. The administrator
consequently has his troubles, for there is a scramble by the
solicitous parents to have their children stamped as superior,
and certainly not to be " stigmatized " as inferior.
Since the greater percentage of the children from the
highest social and economic group fall into the brightest
class and the greater percentage of the children from the
lowest social and economic group fall into the dullest class,*
the problem becomes all the more acute.
* " Comparative Intelligence of Three Social Groups within the Same
School." School and Society, April 30, 1921, pp. 536-539.
Solution of the Problem
If, on the other hand, for each ability group within each
grade there is a specifically prescribed course increasing in
breadth and richness with the ability of the groups, the
solution is rather simple. The anxious parent, then,
whose child is classed in the lowest group, and who insists
that his child belongs in the highest group, can be made
to see that that child, although able to pass his grade in the
lowest section, would fail to make his grade in the bright-
est section. This parent can be convinced that his child is
where he belongs. Let him not only see his boy recite
where he is in the lowest section, but let that parent become
familiar with how much more would be expected of the
child, as indicated by the curriculum definitely prescribed,
if that child were in the brightest section. Moreover, let
such a parent actually see the children of the brighter
section at work.
A Matter of Educating Teachers and the Public
Support of the heartiest nature will back up this program
and result in the right kind of education of the teachers and
the public. What we need is the revamping of the whole
school system so that there will be ability groups for whom
in each grade, throughout that whole school system, there
will be a properly adjusted curriculum commensurate with
the ability of the several groups.
Advantages to Children of Ability Grouping
Provided of course the curriculum is so adjusted as to
properly enrich the work for these brighter children, the
children from whom should come the bulk of the leaders of
the community, the bright children should profit most from
Advantages to the Bright Child
Teachers do not always find the bright child. Some-
times the whole school fails to discover him. The bright
child, just because of his superior ability, may discover, in
the first few weeks of school, that what his classmates do is
so commonplace as to be beneath the dignity of his effort.
Thus with wounded pride, such a child may not only grow
listless but actually may build up habits of defense where
he definitely tries to become oblivious to the monotonous
routine of the school. Consequently there comes a time
when those his inferior classmates, by dint of mere repetition
and exposure to class routine, master the school requirements
to a point where the content and technique may be
beyond this bright child. This bright child may be all the
more annoyed by the fact that those he is sure are of less
ability have mastered what by him is not easily handled.
Such a bright child may appear to the teacher as a hopeless
child and indeed almost stupid.
If, on the other hand, that child had been stimulated to
expend a reasonable amount of effort from the beginning
and had developed a correct attitude and correct habits of
school procedure, his rare ability might easily have been
realized by appropriate development.
It is not enough that a test check up pretty well with
teachers' judgments. If the measure of a good test were
that test's ability to check up by its scores with the judg-
merit of the teacher then intelligence testing would hardly
be justified. The chief service of an intelligence test is to
find ability that the teacher is not likely to find. In other
words, a good test ought to tell what a child can do rather
than what he has done or will do. Once rare ability is
discovered it is the teacher's job to see that such ability
It is not always an easy job to develop the bright child.
Even though the teacher knows a certain child has superior
ability she may have difficulty with that child, especially
if he has been discovered only after he has gone pretty far
through the grades. By that time his habits of listlessness
and indifference may be so fixed that he will not be reached
by the ablest teacher. Such a child should have been
found in the first grade and never should have been allowed
to develop his bad attitudes. Hence the obvious desirability
of classifying children on entering school.
Advantages to the Mediocre Child Who is Over-
Perhaps most of the nervous breakdowns in school are
among the children of mediocre ability. Such children,
endowed with unusual industry, are keenly sensitive to the
suggestion of anxious parents and friends to the end that
they feel they must rank high or among the best in their
class. By undue expenditure of effort these children some-
times do attain to high rank and even to the first place in
their class. But it is at a tremendous cost. In such cases
industry is mistaken for native capacity to learn. Cer-
tainly a good many unhappy boys and girls, especially of
the adolescent age number among this group of unfortu-
An intelligence rating, then, will often suggest that certain
individuals are scoring too high in school performance. If
such ratings are properly checked up, they afford the teacher
and principal the kind of information that ought to be a
great blessing to that kind of child. Not only will the school
seek to guide that child to expend less energy at learning but
every effort will be used to help the parents and friends to
see the danger of their urging him on unduly.
Advantages to the Dull Child
The low-grade child will also profit by classification into
ability groups. Of course one hears on every side that by
such grouping the children of lower ability will lose by the
absence of the stimulating influence of the brighter children.
But this argument is ill founded. In the first place, in the
traditional school, the brightest children are so superior to
the dullest children that the latter cannot hope to compete
at all. Their inferiority is multiplied in their own eyes
because of the display of the bright children's excelling
ability. On the other hand, if the dull child is with those
more nearly of his level of intelligence he is not so often
discouraged. Moreover, just because there are others in
his class of like ability his lessons necessarily are far more
easily within his reach. Consequently he can learn more
and feel happier in doing so than while in the traditional
What of the Single Class School Grade?
In case there is only, one class to a grade in a given build-
ing or a school system, obviously there would be two or more
ability sections within that class selected just as if they were
separate ability classes of the same grade.
Intelligence Ratings in Country Schools
In the ungraded district school the problem of intelligence
classification grows more complex. Although the teacher
cannot well increase her groupings, if she has several grades,
she can find early those of marked ability and encourage
them, and stimulate them to high activity. Likewise she
can find in the ratings reasons why certain children have
failed to make progress in spite of great care and effort
on her part. Just because it applies to all ages and grades
The Myers Mental Measure is well adapted to ungraded
rural schools. Within about 25 minutes all the children of
such a school can be tested as a single group. A number of
entire counties have been surveyed by it. For the same
reason this test has proved, in the several states where it is
being used, to be very well suited for use in corrective
and penal institutions in classifying learners into ability
groups for school training.
Advantages of the Use of Intelligence Tests to the
Supervisor and School Administrator
By the aid of intelligence tests the administrator can
evaluate his school product much more accurately than he
can without their use. If, for example, he finds, by means
of the best standardized educational measurements that one
class or one school is superior or inferior to another class or.
school how is he to know the cause of such disparity? The
tendency often used to be to assume that the difference was
a matter of the schools and in the last analysis a matter of
the teachers. But by the use of intelligence tests it has
been found that such differences are often attributable to
differences in native abilities of the children compared.
When children are divided into ability groups within each
grade the results obtained by each group, of course, can be
expected to be in proportion to the abilities of the several
groups. Any variation can, for the most part, be located
in the teaching. Therefore, by knowing the relative intel-
ligence rating of the several classes of a given grade the
supervisor and administrator can be able to evaluate pretty
accurately the relative merits of the teachers of that grade.
This obviously promotes fairness to the teachers.
Advantages to the Teacher
By promoting fairness to the teacher from the supervisor
and school administrator, teaching morale and consequent
efficiency will inexorably heighten. Moreover, the teacher
can better evaluate her own efforts by checking up the
school progress of each child with his intelligence rating and
by comparing his class rating and class achievement with
those of other classes. She is always eager to know whether
this child or that is getting along as rapidly as he should
and sometimes suffers grave anxiety about certain children
doing very poorly in school. An intelligence test reveals
to her that such children usually are low in abilities and con-
sequently should not be expected to make much progress.
On the other hand, she may also discover that a few such
children have considerable ability and as a result she will
set about with renewed effort and varied methods to develop
them. At any rate the information from an intelligence
test, which as a rule, is more reliable than her judgment,
will greatly decrease her anxieties, increase her efficiency
and add to her encouragement.
Advantages to the Industrial Employer
Intelligence ratings aid the employer to pick out his
potentially ablest men early. Especially is this true where
the type of work is such as to admit and develop unskilled
persons, from whom it is desired to pick foremen and other
leaders. Because it is independent of school experience and
applies to all ages The Myers Mental Measure works par-
ticularly well with unskilled laborers.
General Directions to Examiners
1. Up to and including the fourth grade, all children
should be tested in their regular class rooms. In case of
overcrowded rooms the proper number of children should be
removed therefrom, These overflow children from several
grades can be assembled in any available room to be tested
together. In like manner those children absent on the
day of the test and those entering school subsequent thereto
can, on a later date, all be assembled for the test regardless
of grade. From the fifth grade upward as many as can be
comfortably seated at appropriate writing places (prefer-
ably in every other seat) in the assembly hall, regardless of
the number of grades included, can be tested at one time.
2. The room should be as quiet as possible, devoid of
disturbances. The door should be closed. The teacher
or any other person should not be allowed to walk about the
room ]ooking over the children's papers while they are at
3. The desk should be cleared.
4. Each child should be provided with two sharp pencils.
5. The children should be made to feel at ease.
6. Children, as well as adults, should know from the out-
set, by the examiner's attitude, that no fooling will be tol-
7. Let the examiner proceed in a quiet but effective man-
ner with a voice in moderate pitch, giving the directions
slowly, clearly, and distinctly.
8. The examiner should avoid undue haste or anything
that will annoy or excite those to be examined. Neither
should he pause unduly between tests.
9. There should be strict precaution against copying.
10. Below the fifth grade, age records, to be accurate,
should be got from the school office.
11. Because the first grade is the hardest to test it is best
for the examiner to begin with about the third grade, then
proceed downward to the first grade, and then upward
from the fourth grade. It is never well to test from the
highest grades downward because of coaching dangers.
12. The examiner must be thoroughly familiar with the
directions, so that he can accurately read them with ease.
There is no objection to memorizing them if they are
learned verbatim. Any variation, however, by addition
to the specific directions of the test, subtraction from them,
or modification, will render the ratings of questionable
13. There should be as few examiners as possible to test a
given system in the same day or half day.*
All examiners of a given system should be coached by the
superintendent, or a competent person designated by him,
in giving the test in exact accordance with directions.
14. Time should be recorded with great precision, exactly
to the second, and from the word "Go." A stop watch is
essential. In the absence of a good stop watch, one with a
second hand may be substituted, if read with great accuracy.
No one should presume to count seconds without a watch.
15. Inquiries by the children or adults at the close of the
test in respect to correct answers should unoffensively be
16. The scoring can be done by clerical aides or anyone
able to follow the directions accurately; but the directions
for scoring must be followed to the letter regardless of what
may seem to the scorer to be right or wrong. As a rule a
teacher should not score the papers of her own children.
In case the teachers do the scoring it is recommended that,
in any large school building, teachers be divided into squads
of four, with each one of the squad responsible for a page.
All combining and adding of scores should be checked up by
a second individual.
* Supt. W. H. Kirk of East Cleveland had all his 3,092 elementary children
tested in the same half day.
THE MYERS MENTAL MEASURE
Directions for Giving the Tests
"We are going to give you some papers. We will lay
them on your desk this side up. (Examiner demonstrating.)
You may look at the pictures on the first page as much as
you wish but don't turn the pages.
• "Now write your name at the top of the page. In the
next space write the number of years you were old at your
last birthday. (Examiner pausing until all have finished.)
Now count the number of months since your last birthday
and put that number in the next space. In the next space
write your grade. (This direction can be given only to
children above the fourth grade. Age records for children
below the fourth grade should be got from the school office.)
" I want you to do some things for me. Some of them will
be very easy and some will be hard. You will not be able
to do all of them, but do the very best you can.
"I am going to ask you to draw some lines and make some
marks. Listen closely to what I say. Don't ask any ques-
tions and don't look at anybody's paper but your own."
(In giving directions it is safe to assume that first and
second grade children can go no farther than row seven, and
third and fourth grade children no farther than row nine
on this page. All other pages given just as to upper grades.)
"Look at your paper. Just below where you have
written your name there are several rows of pictures. First
you will be asked to do something with the row with the girl
and the flower, and then something with the alligator, toad,
and eagle, and then something with the row of fruit, then
something with the row beginning with a cat, and then the
row beginning with a soldier; and so on down the page, one
row at a time.
"When I say 'Stop/ stop right away and hold your pencil
up so. (Examiner demonstrating.) Don't put your pencils
down to your paper again until I say ' Go.'
(For the first and second grades — "Now let me see if you
know what I mean. Pencils up! Go! Pencils up! Go.")
"Listen carefully to what I say, do just as you are told to do.
Remember, wait until I say 'Go'.
"Now pencils up. Look at the row with the girl and the
flower. (E. pause here.) Draw a line from the girl's
hand to the flower. Go ! (Allow not over 5 seconds.)
(With Kindergarten and first grade instead of saying
"Look at the row, etc." say "Put your finger on the row.")
"Pencils up! Look at the row with the alligator. Make
a cross above the alligator and another cross below the
toad. Go! (Allow not over 5 seconds.)
"Pencils up! Look at the row of fruit. Draw a ring
around the apple and make a cross below the first banana.
Go! (Allow not over 5 seconds.)
"Pencils up! Look at the row beginning with a cat.
Draw a line from the cat's paw that shall pass below the duck
and fish to the mouth of the rabbit. Go! (Allow not
over 5 seconds.)
" Pencils up! Now look at the line beginning with a
soldier. Draw a line from the tip of the soldier's gun to
the tip of the sword that shall pass below the drum and
above the boat. Go ! (Allow not over 5 seconds.)
" Pencils up! Look at the row with the table. Make a
cross below the comb and then draw a line from the handle
of the pitcher above the clock and shoe to the top of the
barrel. Go! (Allow not over 10 seconds.)
" Pencils up! Look at the square and circle. Make a
cross that shall be in the circle but not in the square and
make another cross that shall be in the circle and in the
square and make a third cross that shall not be in the circle
and not be in the square. Go! (Allow not over 10
" Pencils up ! Look at the row with the two pails. Draw
a short straight line below the middlesized tree, draw a circle
around the cup and then draw a line from the top of the
smallest tree to the top of the largest tree. Go! (Allow
not over 15 seconds.)
(N.B. Examiner — In reading don't pause at the word
CUP as if ending a sentence.)
"Pencils up! Look at the row beginning with a duck.
Draw a line from the tail of the duck above the fox to the
feet of the turkey and then continue the line below the tree to
the nose of the Indian and back to the ear of the fox. Go!
(Allow not over 15 seconds.)
(N.B. Examiner — In reading don't pause at the word
TURKEY as if ending a sentence.)
" Pencils up ! Now look at the row beginning with a pear.
Cross out every fruit that is next to a knife but not next to
an animal or book and make a cross above every fruit that is
next to a book. Go! (Allow not over 15 seconds.)
" Pencils up! Look at the line beginning with a spider.
Make a cross below every spider that is next to a butterfly
and make a cross above every butterfly that is next to a
spider or a toad but not next to an elephant. Go ! (Allow
not over 20 seconds.)
" Pencils up! Look at the row of circles. Draw a line
from the first circle to the last circle that shall pass below
the second and fourth circles and above the third and fifth
circles — make a cross in the first circle, a cross above the
fourth circle and anything except a cross in the last circle.
Go!" (Allow not over 20 seconds.)
(Be sure the page is not turned until demonstration chart
for Test 2 is used.)
"Now look at your small paper like this. (E. holding one
in his hand.) Here are three pictures — a duck, a dishpan,
and a shoe, but none of them are finished. Who can tell
me how to finish the duck? (After some child has given
answer:) Now with your pencil put the eye in the duck.
Who can tell me how to finish the dishpan? Draw the
handle on the dishpan." (Proceed in like manner with
"Now turn over your large sheet this way (E. folding so
that only page 2 is visible) to the picture of the coffee pot.
Look at my paper. (E. holding up proper test sheet.)
Here are a number of pictures. None of them are finished.
Each one has just one thing missing. Work like this
(E. demonstrating by pointing to each picture from left to
right in the first three rows). Finish as many as you can
before I say 'Stop.' Work fast." (Total time 4 minutes.)
"Take this small paper again and turn it over to the side
with the tree at the top. Now look at my paper. (E.
demonstrating by slowly pointing from left to right of each
row.) See, it's in rows. Look at your paper like this. In
the first row on your paper there are two things, only two,
alike in some way. Who can tell me what they are?
(Pause for response.)
"Pencils up! We will draw a short line under each of the
trees. Go! Pencils up! In the next row there are three
things, only three, alike in some way. What are they?
Draw a line under each flower. Go! Pencils up! (Pro-
ceed in the same way for third row, always giving ample
time for every child to finish. Before doing more the
experimenter makes sure every child has properly marked
each item of the demonstration sheet, helping any child
who has not succeeded.)
"Now turn over your large sheets. You have a picture
of a log at the top. Now don't say anything. (With small
children examiner gesturing with hand over mouth.) Now
look at my paper. (E. demonstrating as for chart.) See,
the pictures are in rows. In each of these rows there are a
number of things alike in some way. Pencils up. Look at
the row beginning with a log. In this row there are two
things, only two, alike in some way. Draw lines under them.
Go! (Allow not over 5 seconds for any row in test 3.)
"Pencils up! In the next row beginning with a robin
there are two things, just two, alike In some way. Draw
lines under them. Go!
" Pencils up! In the row beginning with the square there
are two things, just two, alike in some way. Go!
" Pencils up! In the row beginning with the oyster there
are three things, just three, alike in some way. Go!
" Pencils up! In the row beginning with the shoes there
are three things alike in some way. Go!"
" Pencils up! In the row beginning with the umbrella
there are three things. Go !
" Pencils up! In the row beginning with the piano there
are four things. Go!
" Pencils up ! The next row begins with a ladder. In it
there are four things. Go!
"Pencils up ! In the row beginning with the fish there are
four things alike in some way. Go!
"Pencils up! In the last row there are five things. Go!
"Turn your page this way (E. demonstrating). You
have the boy and grapes at the top.
"In each row on this page there are four things, only four,
alike in some way. Draw lines under them as you did before.
Begin with the first row. When you get that row done do
the next row, then do the next row and then the next row.
Whole page. (E. demonstrating by gestures on the page.)
Go!" (Total time 5 minutes.)
Directions for Scoring
Answers are considered right or wrong. No partial credits
are given. A good scheme is to have for each scorer a
correctly marked test sheet with each unit so numbered as
to indicate credits assigned.
Test 1. — Direction Test.
No credit is given for any answer in which more is done
than is required.
Underlining in place of crossing out or a straight line
instead of a cross is wrong.
Credits Given. —
To row 1 — one point; to rows 2, 3, 4, 5 — two points
each; to rows 6, 7, 8 — three points each; to rows
9, 10 — five points each; and to rows 11, 12 — ten
Test 2. — Picture Completion Test.
Any way of clearly indicating missing part receives
credit. So long as proper missing part is given,
additional parts do not make answer wrong.
Credits Given. —
To coffee pot, saw, tree, stove and telegraph — one point
each; to clothes on line and man at mirror — two
points each; to all other pictures — five points each.
Note. — Parts missing — coffee pot, handle; saw, teeth;
tree, axe; stove, pipe; telegraph, wire or wires; man at
mirror, glasses (one glass indicated is counted) ; clothes on
line, clothespins on line; wringer, clothes coming from
wringer; candle, shadow by spool; blocks, shadow length-
ened or two blocks added; teakettle, steam from spout or
cover; house, smoke from chimney; ocean, waves on water;
bov, tracks on snow.
Test 3. — First Common Elements.
Each row counts one point.
Note — Correct common elements in order of rows.
Dogs, birds, circles, weapons, footwear, things with four
legs, musical instruments, animates or inanimates, things
that give light or things to eat, squares with dot in center
Test 4. — Second Common Elements.
To all rows up to 9 — one point each; to rows 9, 10, and
11 — three points each; to rows 12, 13, 14, and 15 —
five points each.
Note. — Correct common elements in order of rows.
Boys, animals, toys, means of travel, things made of metal,
things to eat or things not good to eat, flying things, things
found in the kitchen, things of glass, things of wood, meas-
ures, bipeds, harmful animals, scenes of summer, deeds of
By Grades Regardless of Chronological Ages
cases 45 1410 1447 1721 1630 1922 1495 1610 1550 311 249 160 810 493
Grades K I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII Col-
score 6 13 19 27 34 39 44 48 52 56 59 62 63 69
ratio , .15 .20 .24 .28 .29 .30 .30 .31
By Chronological Ages Regardless of Grades
Number cases 516 1191 1237 1440 1304 1318 1169 1204 928 445 88
(Mental age) 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Median raw score 10 16 23 29 35 39 44 48 50 49 50
ratio .12 .18 .24 .26 .28 .28 .30 .30 .29 .28 .26
1. These grade norms are for the end of the school year.
For September they would be almost a grade less.
2. In interpreting the scores by ages it should be remem-
bered that only the ratings of the elementary school children
for each year are included. From the twelfth year onward
the brightest children have passed from the grades to the
high school. Hence the relatively lower ratings for the
upper ages are as they should be.
3. From the table entitled "Chronological Ages Regard-
less of Grades" one reads, for example, "the median child
6 years old scores 10 points; the median child 10 years old
scores 35 points." Or reading upwards, "the child scoring
10 points has a Mental Age of 6 years, the child scoring 35
points has a Mental Age of 10 years. "
4. Intelligence ratio equals raw score divided by chrono-
logical-age-in-months. Intelligence ratio does not mean
much above the high school and perhaps is not worth com-
puting above the eighth grade.
5. For comparing groups use raw score; for classifying
learners use intelligence ratio.
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THE MYERS MENTAL MEASURE
By CAROLINE E. MYERS and GARRY C. MYERS, Ph.D.
Copyright, 1920. by Caroline E. Myers; Copyright, 1921. by Newson & Company — All right! reserved
. AGE (yrs.) (mos.) GRADE SCHOOL.
6 X b ^ v
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CHART OF THE MYERS MENTAL MEASURE
Copyright, 1920, by Caroline E. Myers
Copyright, 1921, by Newson & Company